What are bromides?
Potassium bromide is an extremely effective anticonvulsant drug for dogs. If compared with phenobarbital potassium bromide is similar in effectiveness and also has fewer negative unwanted side effects. It can be administered by itself (as “monotherapy”) or can be used in combination with various anti-respiratory medications.
Potassium bromide is a chemical that competes with chloride ions to gain access to brain tissue. As the levels of bromide in the brain increase and chloride levels decrease, as a result, the electrical activity of the nervous system’s central region gets blocked, which makes the initiation of a seizure more difficult.
This drug was originally only available to dogs who were unable to tolerate phenobarbital as a method of seizures control due to unacceptable adverse effects or for those who required an additional medication to control seizures in addition to what phenobarbital could offer. Actually, seizure control by potassium bromide is so effective that many veterinarians use it as their first-choice therapy, without making use of phenobarbital.
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What are the benefits of bromides for dogs?
Bromides are administered by mouth as tablets that can be chewed, capsules, or liquid solution. It is recommended to take them in conjunction with food to prevent gastrointestinal upset. The solution can be mixed directly into food, as it is consumed in its entirety is consumed, or it may be administered by mouth after a meal.
If you mix it into your food, lift the bowl of food. If a capsule has been given be sure that the capsule is swallowed completely and then followed by food or water to prevent irritation in the throat or mouth.
Make sure to take the dosages of liquids in a controlled manner using an accurate measuring device or syringe. If you still experience stomach upset when you take food with your dose Try dividing the daily dose into multiple doses over a 24-hour timeframe.
Don’t give it food items that are salty. Do not stop this medicine abruptly unless directed by your physician.
This drug can be taken for a few weeks before the full effects are noticed, however slow improvements are generally noticeable. It is possible for side effects to occur right away.
What if I miss giving my dogs the medication?
If you don’t remember a dose, you can give it as soon as you remember. If you are nearing the time of another dose you can skip the dose you missed, and administer it during the following scheduled time. Then, go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not give your pet two doses at once, or give additional doses.
Are there any possible negative side consequences?
The most frequent side effect is sedation which generally goes away on its own. Other potential side effects are irritation, restlessness, light nausea, decreased appetite, constipation, an increase in thirst, increased appetite, and a more frequent frequency of urination. The most serious and severe reactions include incoordination shakes, dazed or twitching eyes, dilated pupils, persistent loss of appetite, continual nausea or diarrhea, skin eruptions, or an increase in the color of the eyes or skin.
This medication that is long-acting can last between 4 and 6 weeks, and it may even prolong the duration in animals with liver or kidney diseases.
Are there any risk factors that could be associated with this medicine?
Avoid using bromides on pets who are allergic to bromides. It is recommended to use it with caution in pets that are old, pets with kidney problems pregnant or lactating animals, or pets that suffer from other ailments; choose lower doses when these conditions occur. It is recommended to use it in a cautious manner or never at all in cats, as it may cause serious side effects.
Are any interactions with drugs that I must be conscious of?
The following drugs must be handled with caution in the presence of bromides Central nervous system-related sedating agents diuretics, diuretics IV fluids that contain sodium and high or low salt diets, or medications that lower the seizure threshold.
Make sure you inform your vet about all medication (including supplements, vitamins, or herbal treatments) your pet may be taking.
Are there any tests that must be conducted in conjunction with this medication?
Bromide levels in the blood are checked regularly initially, but more often after which it will be measured every 3 to 6 months after your pet is taking a maintenance dose. Your vet will check on your pet’s blood levels to make sure your pet is receiving the correct dose. effective.
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How can I conserve bromides?
Bromides must be stored in a tightly sealed container at temperatures at room temperature. When compounded medications are used, you must follow the storage directions in the package.
potassium bromide is used to treat
Potassium bromide may be administered as a pill or an oral liquid daily. It is available either with or without food however, it comes with an unpleasant taste that can be disguised by mixing it into food.
Since it takes a long time to attain a stable, blood potassium level A lot of doctors recommend the use of a “loading dose” to shorten the time frame and gain an early start to the level of therapeutic blood. A loading dose may get the patient to an appropriate blood level one month earlier, however, the patient may be very relaxed during the loading phase.
A lot of doctors prefer doing loading at a hospital because of this. Due to the time, it takes to get to an acceptable therapeutic bromide blood concentration and further seizure medication could be required in the beginning.
Potassium bromide has been proven to be effective in cats, but it can cause life-threatening lung disease. Therefore, it should be considered to be the last option for this kind of cat.
common side effects of potassium bromide
There is a slight chance of nausea associated when you take potassium bromide. It is recommended to take the medication along with food. usually reduces this.
Because potassium bromide can be described as a salt excessive thirst and urination may be observed when taking this medication.
Grogginess or drowsiness, which may be noticeable and not uncommon during the loading phase during the time that potassium bromide therapy is begun. It is crucial not to give any more potassium bromide to a tired pet, regardless of when a new dose is required.
Sometimes, dogs will get a cough which disappears when potassium bromide is removed.
Dogs who have a pancreatitis history may be prone to aggravation if potassium bromide is prescribed to treat seizure disorders. This is especially true when patients are taking bromide and phenobarbital.
Potassium bromide is recommended in conjunction with food.
In cats, about 1/3 of sufferers develop an asthma-like lung disease that is severe. Potassium bromide isn’t an ideal choice to control seizures in cats.
Stopping potassium bromide abruptly can result in seizures that are severe. If you are deciding to end treatment the doctor can advise you to cease taking the medication. If one dose is missed, it is likely to not cause any problems since blood levels fluctuate so slowly.
If the dose was not administered at the time it is normally then simply administer later during the day. However, there’s no reason to take a second dose for the next dose, even in the event that a single dose is not taken.
Keep potassium bromide out of the light source and keep it stored at room temperature. Don’t refrigerate it.
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SIDE EFFECTS OF CONCERN:
In humans there is a toxic syndrome known as “bromism” is triggered in the event that blood levels of bromide are excessive. The symptoms reported are drowsiness, muscle tremors, weakness, discomfort, loss of appetite, constipation, as well as skin eruptions. This is why bromide levels are regularly monitored. Similar symptoms can be seen in dogs when bromide levels are too high.
A dog with a history of pancreatitis could suffer an exacerbation when potassium bromide is employed to treat seizure disorders. This is particularly the case for those who are taking both bromide and phenobarbital.
seizures in dogs
The two most frequently used treatments for dog seizures are phenobarbital as well as potassium bromide. Research into the effectiveness of anticonvulsants that are not as well-studied is ongoing and the latest anticonvulsants like Zonisamide (brand trademark Zonegran(r)), as well as the levetiracetam (brand name Keppra(r)), are getting more well-known. Combination therapy is typically utilized for dogs who are not responsive to standard treatment.
What causes seizures?
There are many reasons for seizures. Idiopathic epilepsy is the most frequent cause of seizures in dogs and is an inheritable disorder, however, the exact cause of epilepsy isn’t known. Other causes are liver diseases brain tumors, kidney failure brain trauma, and toxic substances.
What are the best ways to treat seizures or to be prevented them?
The treatment is typically initiated when a pet suffers from:
- More than one seizure per month,
- clusters of seizures in which one seizure is followed by another or
- the grand mal seizure that is serious or last for a long time.
The two most frequently used medications to treat dog seizures are phenobarbital as well as potassium bromide. The research into the use of anticonvulsants that are not as well-studied continues, as well more advanced anticonvulsants like Zonisamide (brand trademark Zonegran(r)) as well as the levetiracetam (brand designation Keppra(r)) has been becoming more well-known. Combination therapy is commonly utilized for dogs who are not responsive to standard treatment.
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